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Page history last edited by gretchen 11 years, 9 months ago

Participles are verbals that usually function as adjectives and occasionally function as adverbs. Participles generally end with an –ed or –ing ending. Since participles are derived from verbs, they do express actions or states of being. When participles function as adjectives, they are usually found preceding the nouns and pronouns in a sentence. When participles function as adverbs, they are typically found following the verb in a sentence. There are two types of participles: present participles and past participles. Present participles have an –ing ending. Past participles may have one of several past tense endings, including –ed, -en, and -d. As with gerunds, participles may occur as one word, or they may be part of a participial phrase. Let’s take a look at some examples:


Present participles

The running water provided a picturesque view. (adjectival)

The clown was able to stop the raging bull from attacking the rider. (adjectival)


Past participles

The crushed bug was an unpleasant sight. (adjectival)

He was able to repair the broken lock. (adjectival)


Present participial phrases

The car stopping at the light was hit by the truck. (adjectival)

The bull came running towards the rodeo clown. (adverbial)


Past participial phrases

James, amused by the crowd’s response, continued to perform magic tricks. (adjectival)

Shaken from his near-death experience, John was unable to speak. (adjectival)



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Comments (1)

gretchen said

at 8:54 pm on Mar 13, 2009

I would appreciate any additional resources that any of you would be willing to contribute.

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